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Phantom Experiments

One of the foremost objectives of space radiation dosimetry is to serve as a solid basis for risk assessment for cosmic ray-induced late effects such as cancer, even if the radiobiology associated with these unique radiation fields to a considerable amount is still unknown. The use of dedicated phantoms, simulating a space traveller’s body, provides a detailed mapping of dose distribution that is essential for evaluating the doses absorbed in different organs and tissues. Dose measurements are obtained by using a generally large amount of miniature dosimeters, such as thermoluminescence (TL) phosphors, arranged in a regular grid within the mannequin.

HEADPhantom Head, Space Shuttle Experiment (1989-1990)

  • G. D. Badhwar, L. A. Braby, A. Konradi, Real-time measurements o dose and quality factors on board the Space Shuttle, Int. J. Radiat. App. Instrum. D-Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. 17 (4), 591–594 (1990).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1359-0189(90)90022-P
  • A. Konradi, W. Atwell, G. D. Badhwar, B. L. Cash, K. A. Hardy, Low Earth orbit radiation dose distribution in a phantom head, Int. J. Radiat. App. Instrum. D-Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. 20 (1), 49–54 (1992).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1359-0189(92)90084-9

FREDAnthropomorphic Phantom, Space Shuttle Experiment (1998), International Space Station Experiment (2001)

SPHERESpherical Phantom, Space Station MIR Experiment (1997 - 1999)

  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, W. Schöner, M. Fugger, N. Vana, M. Noll, R. Ebner, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, V. Arkhangelsky, Measurement of the depth distribution of average LET and absorbed dose inside a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir, Phys. Medica 17 (Suppl. 1), 128–130 (2001).
    www.physicamedica.com/VOLXVII_S1/29-BERGER%20et%20alii.pdf
  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, W. Schöner, M. Fugger, N. Vana, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, V. Arkhangelsky, D. Kartashov, Application of the high-temperature ratio method for evaluation of the depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 100 (1–4) 503–506 (2002).
    rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/1-4/503.abstract
  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, W. Schöner, M. Fugger, N. Vana, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, V. Arkhangelsky, D. Kartashov, Depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom onboard Space Station Mir, Proc. 12th Bienn. Top. Meet. Radiat. Shield. Division Am. Nucl. Soc., 14–18 Apr. 2002, Santa Fe, USA, CD-ROM.
  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, L. Summerer, N. Vana, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, V. Arkhangelsky, Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station – overview and comparison, Adv. Space Res. 34 (6) 1414–1419 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2003.08.063

MTR-RSpherical Phantom MATROSHKA-R, International Space Station Experiment (2004 - )

  • S. A. Kireeva, V. V. Benghin, A. V. Kolomensky, V. M. Petrov, Phantom—dosimeter for estimating effective dose onboard International Space Station, Acta Astronaut. 60 (4–7), 547–553 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.09.019
  • J. Semkova, R. Koleva, G. Todorova, N. Kanchev, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, V. Benghin, I. Tchhernykh, Y. Akatov, V. Redko, Investigation of dose and flux dynamics in the Liulin-5 dosimeter of the tissue-equivalent phantom onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station, Adv. Space Res. 31 (5), 1383–1388 (2003).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00952-3
  • J. Semkova, R. Koleva, G. Todorova, N. Kanchev, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, I. Tchhernykh, S. Kireeva, Instrumentation for investigation of the depth-dose distribution by the Liulin-5 instrument of a human phantom on the Russian Segment of ISS for estimation of the radiation risk during long term space flights, Adv. Space Res. 34 (6), 1297–1301 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2003.10.047
  • J. Semkova, R. Koleva, V. Shurshakov, V. Benghin, S. Maltchev, N. Kanchev, V. Petrov, E. Yarmanova, I. Chernykh, Status and calibration results of Liulin-5 charged particle telescope designed for radiation measurements in a human phantom onboard the International Space Station, Adv. Space Res. 40 (11), 1586–1592 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.01.008
  • J. Semkova, R. Koleva, S. Maltchev, V. Benghin, I. Chernykh, V. Shurshakov, V. Petrov, E. Yarmanova, N. Bankov, V. Lyagushin, Y. Roslyakov, Cosmic radiation dose rate, flux, LET spectrum and quality factor obtained with Liulin-5 experiment aboard the International Space Station, Proc. Fundam. Space Res., 21–28 Sept. 2008, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, pp. 229–233.
    www.stil.bas.bg/FSR/
  • V. Shurshakov, V. M. Petrov, Y. Akatov, R. Tolochek, I. Kartsev, V. I. Petrov, B. Polenov, V. Lyagushin, Study of dose distribution in a human body in Space Station compartments with the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom, Proc. Fundam. Space Res., 21–28 Sept. 2008, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, pp. 234-237.
    www.stil.bas.bg/FSR/
  • Semkova J., Koleva R., Maltchev S., Benghin V., Chernykh I., Shurshakov V., Petrov V., Yarmanova E., Bankov N., Lyagushin V., Roslyakov Yu.Cosmic radiation dose rate, flux, LET spectrum and quality factor obtained with Liulin-5 experiment aboard the International Space Station. Fundamental Space Research, Conference Proceedings. Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, September 21 – 28, 229-233 (2008).
    www.stil.bas.bg/FSR/
  • J. Semkova, R. Koleva, S. Maltchev, N. Kanchev, V. Benghin, I. Chernykh, V. Shurshakov, V. Petrov, E. Yarmanova, N. Bankov, V. Lyagushin, M. Goranova, Radiation measurements inside a human phantom aboard the International Space Station using Liulin-5 charged particle telescope, Adv. Space Res. 45 (7), 858–865 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.08.027
  • I. S. Kartsev, R. V. Tolochek, V. A. Shurshakov, Y. A. Akatov, Calculation of ra-diation doses in cosmonaut’s body in long-term flight onboard the ISS using the data obtained in spherical phantom, Proc. Fundam. Space Res., 20 Sep.–20 Nov. 2009, pp. 80–83.
    www.stil.bas.bg/FSR2009/pap80.pdf
  • R. Machrafi, K. Garrow, H. Ing, M. B. Smith, H. R. Andrews, Yu. Akatov, V. Arkhangelsky,I. Chernykh, V. Mitrikas, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, L. Tomi, I. Kartsev, V. Lyagushin, Neutron dose study with bubble detectors aboard the International Space Station as part of the Matroshka-R experiment, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 133 (1–4), 200–207 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncp039
  • A. Hallil, M. Brown, Y. Akatov, V. Arkhangelsky, I. Chernykh, V. Mitrikas, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, L. Tomi, I. Kartsev, V. Lyagushin, MOSFET dosimetry mission inside the ISS as part of the Matroshka-R experiment, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 138, (1-4), 295–309, (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncp265
  • I. Jadrnícková, K. Brabcová, Z. Mrázová, F. Spurný, V.A. Shurshakov, I. S. Kartsev, R. V. Tolochek, Dose characteristics and LET spectra on and inside the spherical phantom onboard of ISS, Radiat. Meas., 45 (10), 1536–1540 (2010).
    x.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.07.002
  • I. Ambrožová, K. Brabcová, F. Spurný, V. A. Shurshakov, I. S. Kartsev, R. V. Tolochek, Monitoring on board spacecraft by means of passive detectors, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 144 (1–4), 605–610 (2011).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncq305
  • I. Jadrnícková, R. Tateyama, N. Yasuda, H. Kawashima, M. Kurano, Y. Uchihori, H. Kitamura ,Yu. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, I. Kobayashi, H. Ohguchi, Y. Koguchi, F. Spurný, Variation of absorbed doses onboard of ISS Russian Service Module as measured with passive detectors, Radiat. Meas. 44 (9–10), 901–904 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.10.075
  • L. Sihver, T. Sato, K. Gustafsson, V. A. Shurshakov, G. Reitz, Simulations of the MTR-R and MTR experiments at ISS, and shielding properties using PHITS, Proc. 2009 IEEE Aerospace Conf., 7–14 Mar. 2009, Big Sky, USA, pp. 1–8.
    dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2009.4839360
  • I. Jadrnícková, K. Brabcová, Z. Mrázová, F. Spurný, V.A. Shurshakov, I. S. Kartsev, R. V. Tolochek, Dose characteristics and LET spectra on and inside the spherical phantom onboard of ISS, Radiat. Meas., (2010)
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.07.002

MTRAnthropomorphic Phantom MATROSHKA, International Space Station Experiment (2004 - )

  • J. Dettmann, G. Reitz, Matroshka: Measuring radiation hazards for spacewalkers, On Station 13, 20-21 (2003).
    www.esa.int/esapub/onstation/onstation13/page20-21.pdf
  • G. Reitz, T. Berger, The MATROSHKA facility—Dose determination during an EVA, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1-4), 442-445 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci558
  • J. Dettmann, G. Reitz, G. Gianfiglio, MATROSHKA—The first ESA external payload on the International Space Station, Acta Astronaut. 60 (1), 17-23 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.04.018
  • G. Reitz, T. Berger, P. Bilski, R. Facius, M. Hajek, V. Petrov, M. Puchalska, D. Zhou, J. Bossler, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, P. Olko, M. Ptaszkiewicz, R. Bergmann, M. Fugger, N. Vana, R. Beaujean, S. Burmeister, D. Bartlett, L. Hager, J. Pálfalvi, J. Szabó, D. O’Sullivan, H. Kitamura, Y. Uchihori, N. Yasuda, A. Nagamatsu, H. Tawara, E. Benton, R. Gaza, S. McKeever, G. Sawakuchi, E. Yukihara, F. Cucinotta, E. Semones, N. Zapp, J. Miller, J. Dettmann, Astronaut’s organ doses inferred from measurements in a human phantom outside the International Space Station, Radiat. Res. 171 (2), 225-235 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR1559.1
  • D. Zhou, E. Semones, D. O’Sullivan, N. Zapp, M. Weyland, G. Reitz, T. Berger, E. R. Benton, Radiation measured for MATROSHKA-1 experiment with passive dosimeters, Acta Astronaut. 66 (1-2), 301-308 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.06.014
  • L. Sihver, T. Sato, K. Gustafsson, V.A. Shurshakov, G. Reitz. Simulations of the MTR-R and MTR experiments at ISS, and shielding properties using PHITS, IEEEAC paper #1015, 1-8, 2009
    dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2009.4839360
  • R. Bergmann, M. Hajek, T. Berger, M. Hajek, G. Reitz, P. Bilski, M. Puchalska, Radiation hazards to astronauts, in Leben mit Strahlung (eds Maringer, F. J., Czarwinski, R., Geringer, T., Brandl, A., Steurer, A.) 411–414 (TÜV Media, 2009).
  • K. Gustafsson, L. Sihver, D. Mancusi, T. Sato, G. Reitz, T. Berger, PHITS simulations of the MATROSHKA experiment, Adv. Space Res. 46 (10), 1266-1272 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.05.028
  • G. Reitz, T. Berger, P. Sundblad, J. Dettmann, Reducing radiation risk in space: The MATROSHKA project, ESA Bull. 141, 28–36 (2010).
    esamultimedia.esa.int/multimedia/publications/ESA-Bulletin-141/pageflip.html
  • L. Sihver, T. Sato, M. Puchalska, G. Reitz, Simulations of the MATROSHKA experiment at the International Space Station using PHITS, Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 49 (3), 351-357 2010.
    dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-010-0288-y
  • V. M. Petrov, D. A. Kartashov, Y. A. Akatov, A. V. Kolomensky, V. A. Shurshakov, Comparison of space radiation doses inside the Matroshka-torso phantom installed outside the ISS with the doses in a cosmonaut body in Orlan-M spacesuit during EVA, Acta Astronaut. 68 (9–10), 1448–1453 (2011).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.06.002
  • P. Bilski, T. Berger, M. Hajek, G. Reitz, Comparison of the response of various TLDs to cosmic radiation and ion beams: Current results of the HAMLET project, Radiation Measurements, 46 (12), 1680-1685, (2011).
    dx.doi.or/10.1016/j.radmeas.2011.03.023
  • M. Puchalska, L. Sihver, T. Sato, T. Berger, G. Reitz, Simulations of MATROSHKA experiment outside the ISS using PHITS. Advances in Space Research. 50, 489-495, (2012).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2012.04.027
  • T. Berger, P. Bilski, M. Hajek, M. Puchalska, G. Reitz, The MATROSHKA Experiment: Results and Comparison from EVA (MTR-1) and IVA (MTR-2A/2B) Exposure. Radiation Research. 180 (6), 622–637 (2013).
    dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR13148.1
  • M. Puchalska, P. Bilski, T. Berger, M. Hajek, T. Horwacik, C. Körner, P. Olko, V. Shurshakov, G. Reitz, NUNDO - a numerical model of a human torso phantom and its application to effective dose calculations for astronauts at the ISS, Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 53(4), 719-727 (2014.)
    dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-014-0560-7

 

Supplementary Publications

SPACESUIT

  • E. R. Benton, E. V. Benton, A. L. Frank, M. F. Moyers, Characterization of the radiation shielding properties of US and Russian EVA suits using passive detectors, Radiat. Meas. 41 (9–10), 1191–1201 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.04.030

HEAD

  • G. D. Reeves, T. E. Cayton, S. P. Gary, R. D. Belian, The great solar energetic particle events of 1989 observed from geosynchronous orbit, J. Geophys. Res. 97 (A5), 6219–6226 (1992).
    dx.doi.org/10.1029/91JA03102


The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EU’s
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) and coordinated by the
German Aerospace Center (DLR)

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