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Passive Instrumentation

Passive detector sets for area monitoring, which are distributed at numerous locations throughout the U.S. and Russian segments of the ISS, usually comprise thermally (TLD) and optically (OSL) stimulated luminescence dosimeters as well as plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) for assessing absorbed dose, linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalent at the point of interest. Among the most notable advantages of passive systems are their complete energy autonomy, robustness, and generally compact dimensions, which makes them suited also for use as portable area monitors or personal dose-rate metres, some even with on-demand readout (Pille).

NE
  • A. B. Akopova, M. M. Manaseryan, A. A. Melkonyan, S. S. Tatikyan, Y. Potapov, Radiation measurements on the International Space Station, Radiat. Meas. 39 (2), 225–228 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.06.013
  • A. B. Akopova, S. S. Tatikyan, M. M. Manaseryan, A. A. Melkonyan, V. A. Ivanov, Investigation of radiation fields at different altitudes in near-Earth orbit, Adv. Space Res. 40 (11), 1580–1585 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.05.045
  • R. Machrafi, K. Garrow, H. Ing, M. B. Smith, H. R. Andrews, Y. Akatov, V. Arkhangelsky, I. Chernykh, V. Mitrikas, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, L. Tomi, I. Kartsev, V. Lyagushin, Neutron dose study with bubble detectors aboard the International Space Station as part of the Matroshka-R experiment, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 133 (4), 200–207 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncp039
PILLE
  • I. Apáthy, S. Deme, L. Bodnár, A. Csöke, I. Héjja, An on-board TLD system for dose monitoring on the International Space Station, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 84 (1–4), 321–323 (1999).
    rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/84/1-4/321.abstract
  • S. Deme, I. Apáthy, T. Pázmándi, E. R. Benton, G. Reitz, Y. Akatov, On-board TLD measurements on Mir and ISS, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 438–441 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci511
  • T. Pázmándi, S. Deme, E. Láng, Space dosimetry with the application of a 3D silicon detector telescope: Response function and inverse algorithm, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 401–404 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci539
  • I. Apáthy, Y. A. Akatov, V. V. Arkhangelsky, L. Bodnár, S. Deme, I. Fehér, A. Kaleri, I. Padalka, T. Pázmándi, G. Reitz, S. Sharipov, TL dose measurements on board the Russian segment of the ISS by the “Pille” system during Expedition-8, -9 and -10, Acta Astronaut. 60 (4–7), 322–328 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.09.037
PILLE/PNTD/TLD
  • G. Reitz, R. Beaujean, E. Benton, S. Burmeister, T. Dachev, S. Deme, M. Luszik-Bhadra, P. Olko, Space radiation measurements on-board ISS—The DOSMAP experiment, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 116 (1–4), 374–379 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci262
TLD
  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, L. Summerer, N. Vana, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, V. Arkangelsky, Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station – Overview and comparison, Adv. Space Res. 34 (6), 1414–1419 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2003.08.063
  • M. Hajek, T. Berger, M. Fugger, M. Fürstner, N. Vana, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, V. Arkhangelsky, Dose distribution in the Russian Segment of the International Space Station, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 446–449 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci566
  • M. Hajek, T. Berger, M. Fugger, M. Fuerstner, N. Vana, Y. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, V. Arkhangelsky, BRADOS – Dose determination in the Russian Segment of the International Space Station, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1664–1667 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.01.015
PNTD
  • W. Günther, W. Heinrich, F. Flesch, G. Reitz, Energy spectra of HZE-particles inside the International Space Station, Radiat. Meas. 34 (1–6), 245–247 (2001).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(01)00160-3
  • D. T. Bartlett, L. G. Hager, R. J. Tanner, The use of passive personal neutron dosemeters to determine the neutron dose equivalent component of radiation fields in spacecraft, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 110 (1–4), 405–409 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nch131
  • D. O’Sullivan, D. Zhou, E. Semones, W. Heinrich, E. Flood, Dose equivalent, absorbed dose and charge spectrum investigation in low Earth orbit, Adv. Space Res. 34 (6), 1420–1423 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2003.05.048
  • J. K. Pálfalvi, Y. Akatov, J. Szabó, L. Sajó-Bohus, I. Eördögh, Evaluation of SSNTD stacks exposed on the ISS, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 110 (1–4), 393–397 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nch140
  • J. K. Pálfalvi, J. Szabó, Y. Akatov, L. Sajó-Bohus, I. Eördögh, Cosmic ray studies on the ISS using SSNTD, BRADOS projects, 2001–2003. Radiat. Meas. 40 (2–6), 428–432 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2005.01.007
  • J. K. Pálfalvi, Y. Akatov, J. Szabó, L. Sajó-Bohus, I. Eördögh, Detection of primary and secondary cosmic ray particles aboard the ISS using SSNTD stacks, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 427–432 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci673
  • J. Szabó, J. K. Pálfalvi, B. Dudás, Y. A. Akatov, I. Eördögh, Cosmic ray detection on the ISS by a 3 axes track etch detector stack and the complementary calibration studies. Radiat. Meas. 43 (2–6), 688–693 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.02.016
  • D. Zhou, D. O’Sullivan, E. Semones, M. Weyland, Charge spectra of cosmic ray nuclei measured with CR-39 detectors in low earth orbit, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 564 (1), 262–266 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2006.05.044
  • D. Zhou, D. O’Sullivan, E. Semones, W. Heinrich, Radiation field of cosmic rays measured in low Earth orbit by CR-39 detectors, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1764–1769 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2004.08.009
  • F. Spurný, K. Turek, Track-etched detectors for the dosimetry of the radiation of cosmic origin, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 109 (4), 375–381 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nch314
  • F. Spurný, I. Jadrnícková, Some recent measurements onboard spacecraft with passive detector, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 116 (1–4), 228–231 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci059
PNTD/TLD
  • I. Jadrnícková, R. Tateyama, N. Yasuda, H. Kawashima, M. Kurano, Y. Uchihori, H. Kitamura ,Yu. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, I. Kobayashi, H. Ohguchi, Y. Koguchi, F. Spurny; Variation of absorbed doses onboard of ISS Russian Service Module as measured with passive detectors, Radiation Measurements 44, 901–904 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.10.075
  • M. Hajek, T. Berger, N. Vana, M. Fugger, J. K. Pálfalvi, J. Szabó, I. Eördögh, Y. A. Akatov, V. V. Arkhangelsky, V. A. Shurshakov, Convolution of TLD and SSNTD measurements during the BRADOS-1 experiment onboard ISS (2001), Radiat. Meas. 43 (7), 1231–1236 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.04.094
  • U. Straube, T. Berger, G. Reitz, R. Facius, C. Fuglesang, T. Reiter, V. Damann, M. Tognini, Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations, Acta Astronaut. 66 (7–8), 963–973 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.10.004
PNTD/TLD/OSL
  • F. Vanhavere, J. L. Genicot, D. O’Sullivan, D. Zhou, F. Spurný, I. Jadrnícková, G. O. Sawakuchi, E. G. Yukihara, Dosimetry of biological experiments in space (DOBIES) with luminescence (OSL and TL) and track etch detectors, Radiat. Meas. 43 (2–6), 694–697 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.12.002
  • O. Goossens, F. Vanhavere, N. Leys, P. De Boever, D. O’Sullivan, D. Zhou, F. Spurny, E. G. Yukihara, R. Gaza, S. W. S. McKeever, Radiation dosimetry for microbial experiments in the International Space Station using different etched track and luminescent detectors, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 433–437 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci652
  • D. Zhou, E. Semones, R. Gaza, S. Johnson, N. Zapp, M. Weyland, Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 580 (3), 1283–1289 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2007.06.091
  • D. Zhou, D. O’Sullivan, E. Semones, N. Zapp, S. Johnson, M. Weyland, Radiation dosimetry for high LET particles in low Earth orbit, Acta Astronaut. 63 (7–10), 855–864 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.04.002
  • D. Zhou, E. Semones, R. Gaza, S. Johnson, N. Zapp, K. Lee, T. George, Radiation measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with different dosimeters, Adv. Space Res. 43 (8), 1212–1219 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.02.003
NE/PNTD/TLD
  • G. Reitz, Past and future application of solid-state detectors in manned spaceflight, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 387–396 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncj014

Supplementary Publications

REVIEW
NE
  • A. B. Akopova, N. V. Magaradze, A. M. Marenny, A. A. Moiseenko, R. A. Nymmik, E. D. Tolstaya, On the feasibility of studying the fluxes of protons and helium isotopes with nuclear photoemulsion against the background of radiation belt particles, Radiat. Meas. 25 (1–4), 479–482 (1995).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1350-4487(95)00177-G
  • A. B. Akopova, Controllable passive detectors for study of the radiation environment in space and the atmosphere, Adv. Space Res. 21 (12), 1809–1812 (1998).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1177(98)00073-8
  • V. E. Dudkin, O. N. Karpov, Y. V. Potapov, A. B. Akopova, N. V. Magradze, A. A. Moiseenko, L. V. Melkumyan, S. B. Rshtuni, Studying radiation environment on board STS-55 and STS-57 by the method of passive detectors, Radiat. Meas. 25 (1–4), 483–484 (1995).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1350-4487(95)00178-H
  • V. E. Dudkin, Y. V. Potapov, A. B. Akopova, L. V. Melkumyan, V. G. Bogdanov, V. I. Zacharov, V. A. Plyuschev, A. P. Lobakov, V. I. Lyagyshin, Measurement of fast and intermediate neutron energy spectra on MIR space station in the second half of 1991, Radiat. Meas. 26 (3), 535–539 (1996).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1350-4487(96)00062-5
  • V. I. Lyagushin, V. E. Dudkin, Y. V. Potapov, V. D. Sevastianov, Russian measurements of neutron energy spectra on the Mir orbital station, Radiat. Meas. 33 (3), 313–319 (2001).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(00)00156-6
PILLE
  • I. Apáthy, S. Deme, I. Fehér, Y. A. Akatov, G. Reitz, V. V. Arkhangelsky, Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system, Radiat. Meas. 35 (5), 381–391 (2002).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(02)00071-9
TLD
  • H. Yasuda, K. Fujitaka, Solid-state integrating detectors as an indicator of biological doses from HZE particles, Adv. Space Res. 30 (4), 927–932 (2002).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00402-7
  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, M. Fugger, N. Vana, Efficiency-corrected dose verification with thermoluminescence dosemeters in heavy-ion beams, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 361–364 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci581
  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, TL-efficiency—Overview and experimental results over the years, Radiat. Meas. 43 (2–6), 146–156 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.10.029
  • J. W. Wilson, F. A. Cucinotta, M. J. Golightly, J. E. Nealy, G. D. Qualls, F. F. Badavi, G. De Angelis, B. M. Anderson, M. S. Clowdsley, N. Luetke, N. Zapp, M. R. Shavers, E. Semones, A. Hunter, International Space Station: A testbed for experimental and computational dosimetry, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1656–1663 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.02.038
  • T. Berger, M. Hajek, On the linearity of the high-temperature emission from 7LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700), Radiat. Meas. 43 (9–10), 1467–1473 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.06.004
  • P. Bilski, On the correctness of the thermoluminescent high-temperature ratio (HTR) method for estimating ionization density effects in mixed radiation fields, Radiat. Meas. 45 (1), 42–50 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.11.006
SE
  • H. Ing, T. McLean, R. Noulty, A. Mortimer, Bubble detectors and the assessment of biological risk from space radiations, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 65 (1–4), 421–424 (1996).
    rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/65/1-4/421.abstract
  • F. d’Errico, Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 184 (1–2), 229–254 (2001).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(01)00730-3
  • A. R. Green, H. R. Andrews, L. G. I. Bennett, E. T. H. Clifford, H. Ing, G. Jonkmans, B. J. Lewis, R. A. Noulty, E. A. Ough, Bubble detector characterization for space radiation, Acta Astronaut. 56 (9–12), 949–960 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2005.01.022
  • A. R. Green, L. G. I. Bennett, B. J. Lewis, P. Tume, H. R. Andrews, R. A. Noulty, H. Ing, Characterization of bubble detectors for aicrew and space radiation exposure, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 485–490 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci686
PNTD
  • R. P. Henke, E. V. Benton, On geometry of tracks in dielectric nuclear track detectors, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 97 (3), 483–489 (1971).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/0029-554X(71)90250-3
  • L. Sajó-Bohus, J. K. Pálfalvi, Y. Akatov, O. Arevalo, E. D. Greaves, P. Németh, D. Palacios, J. Szabó, I. Eördögh, Neutron-induced complex reaction analysis with 3D nuclear track simulation, Radiat. Meas. 40 (2–6), 442–447 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2005.02.011
  • N. Yasuda, D. H. Zhang, S. Kodaira, Y. Koguchi, S. Takebayashi, W. Shinozaki, S. Fujisaki, N. Juto, I. Kobayashi, M. Kurano, D. Shu, H. Kawashima, Verification of angular dependence for track sensitivity on several types of CR-39, Radiat. Meas. 43 (Suppl. 1), S269–S273 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.027
NE/PNTD/TLD
PNTD/TLD
  • G. D. Badhwar, W. Atwell, E. V. Benton, A. L. Frank, R. P. Keegan, V. E. Dudkin, O. N. Karpov, Y. V. Potapov, A. B. Akopova, N. V. Magradze, L. V. Melkumyan, S. B. Rshtuni, A study of the radiation environment on board the Space Shuttle flight STS-57, Radiat. Meas. 24 (3), 283–289 (1995).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1350-4487(95)00007-2
  • E. R. Benton, E. V. Benton, A. L. Frank, Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: Internal measurements, Radiat. Meas. 35 (5), 439–455 (2002).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(02)00075-6
  • D. Zhou, E.Semones, R.Gaza, S.Johnson, N.Zapp, M.Weyland, R. Rutledge, T.Lin, Radiation measured with different dosimeters during STS-121 space mission, Acta Astronautica 64 437–447 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.10.001
OSL
  • E. G. Yukihara, S. W. S. McKeever, Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry in medicine and biology, Phys. Med. Biol. 53 (20), R351–R379 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/53/20/R01
ICCHIBAN
  • Y. Uchihori, K. Fujitaka, N. Yasuda, E. Benton, Intercomparison of radiation instruments for cosmic-ray with heavy ion beams at NIRS (ICCHIBAN project), J. Radiat. Res. 43 (Suppl.), S81–S85 (2002).
    www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrr/43/S/S81/_pdf
  • N. Yasuda, Y. Uchihori, E. R. Benton, H. Kitamura, K. Fujitaka, The intercomparison of cosmic rays with heavy ion beams at NIRS (ICCHIBAN) project, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 414–420 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci536


The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EU’s
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) and coordinated by the
German Aerospace Center (DLR)

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