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Active Instrumentation

The main advantages of active instruments lay in their real-time data viewing capabilities as well as the built-in radiation alert functions against sudden increases of the dose rate due to the rise of a solar particle event. Active area monitors are based on the concepts of microdosimetry, such as the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) operated by NASA, on silicon detector technology (NASA charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS) and Russian DB-8), and on ionization-chamber principles (Russian R-16). A semi-active device is the Hungarian Pille (the Hungarian word for ‘butterfly’) system, an automated on-board reader for passive thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) that are frequently applied for dose determination during cosmonaut extravehicular activity. Science-driven experiments used a Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS) for neutron detection and different configurations of silicon strip detectors, such as ALTEA and ALTCRISS/Alteino.

PILLE/TRITEL
  • I. Apáthy, S. Deme, L. Bodnár, A. Csöke, I. Héjja, An on-board TLD system for dose monitoring on the International Space Station, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 84 (1–4), 321–323 (1999).
    rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/84/1-4/321.abstract
  • S. Deme, I. Apáthy, T. Pázmándi, E. R. Benton, G. Reitz, Y. Akatov, On-board TLD measurements on Mir and ISS, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 438–441 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci511
  • I. Apáthy, Y. A. Akatov, V. V. Arkhangelsky, L. Bodnár, S. Deme, I. Fehér, A. Kaleri, I. Padalka, T. Pázmándi, G. Reitz, S. Sharipov, TL dose measurements on board the Russian segment of the ISS by the “Pille” system during Expedition-8, -9 and -10, Acta Astronaut. 60 (4–7), 322–328 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.09.037
  • Pázmándi, S. Deme, E. Láng, Space dosimetry with the application of a 3D silicon detector telescope: Response function and inverse algorithm, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 401–404 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci539
  • A. Hirn, I. Apáthy, L. Bodnár, A. Csoke, S. Deme, T. Pázmándi, Development of a complex instrument measuring dose in the Van Allen belts, Acta Astronaut. 63 (7–10), 878–885 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.04.001
  • A. Hirn, Models of performances of dosimetric telescopes in the anisotropic radiation field in low Earth orbit, Acta Astronaut. 66 (9–10), 1368–1372 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.11.016
R-16/DB-8
  • L. V. Tverskaya, M. I. Panasyuk, S. Y. Reizman, E. N. Sosnovets, M. V. Tel’tsov, V. V. Tsetlin, The features of radiation dose variations onboard ISS and Mir space station: Comparative study, Adv. Space Res. 34 (6), 1424–1428 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2004.02.010
  • V. A. Bondarenko, V. G. Mitrikas, V. V. Tsetlin, Large proton disturbances in the orbit: 14 years later, Cosmic Res. 42 (6), 636–640 (2005).
    springerlink.metapress.com/content/g353qm7nv17613l2/
  • N. V. Kuznetsov, R. A. Nymmik, M. I. Panasyuk, E. N. Sosnovets, M. V. Teltsov, Detection and prediction of absorbed radiation doses from solar proton fluxes onboard orbital stations, Cosmic Res. 42 (3), 203–209 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:COSM.0000033295.49916.83
  • V. V. Benghin, V. M. Petrov, S. A. Kireeva, A. V. Markov, A. N. Volkov, A. P. Aleksandrin, M. I. Panasjuk, J. V. Kutuzov, O. V. Morozov, M. V. Teltsov, Analysis of radiation dose increases caused by solar cosmic ray events observed by the Radiation Monitoring System on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station, Adv. Space Res. 36 (9), 1749–1752 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.008
  • V. M. Petrov, V. V. Benghin, V. A. Shurshakov, M. I. Panasyuk, Y. V. Kutuzov, O. V. Morozov, A. G. Myasnikov, M. V. Tel’tsov, A. V. Markov, A. N. Volkov, V. I. Lyagushin, I. V. Nikolayev, A. P. Alexandrin, Absorbed doses in October–November 2003 onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station according to the data of radiation control system, Cosmic Res. 44 (2), 106–110 (2006).
    springerlink.metapress.com/content/b03170r412556712/
  • V. V. Tsetlin, Y. A. Akatov, V. V. Archangelsky, V. G. Mitrikas and V. A. Bondarenko, M. V. Teltsov, Some results of monitoring the radiation conditions onboard the International Space Station (2000–2003), Cosmic Res. 43 (5), 314–318 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10604-005-0051-3
  • V. V. Tsetlin, Y. A. Akatov, V. V. Arkhangelsky, V. G. Mitrikas, V. A. Bondarenko, S. A. Makin, Some results of radiation monitoring of the ISS Russian Segment in 2000–2005 [in Russian], Aviakosm. Ekolog. Med. 40 (5), 21–25 (2006).
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17357622
  • V. V. Benghin, On-board predicting algorithm of radiation exposure for the International Space Station radiation monitoring system, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 70 (2–4), 675–679 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2007.08.045
  • A. E. Lishnevskii, M. I. Panasyuk, V. V. Benghin, V. M. Petrov, A. N. Volkov, O. Y. Nechayev, Variations of radiation environment onboard the ISS in the year 2008, Cosmic Res. 48 (3), 212–217 (2010).
    springerlink.metapress.com/content/5264n32123r5446v/
LIULIN
  • T. P. Dachev, F. Spurny, G. Reitz, B. T. Tomov, P. G. Dimitrov, Y. N. Matviichuk, Simultaneous investigation of galactic cosmic rays on aircrafts and on International Space Station, Adv. Space Res. 36 (9), 1665–1670 (2005).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.05.073
  • T. Dachev, W. Atwell, E. Semones, B. Tomov, B. Reddell, Observations of the SAA radiation distribution by Liulin-E094 instrument on ISS, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1672–1677 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.01.001
  • J. Semkova, Radiation detection and dosimetry for estimating the space weather radiation impact on crewmembers during long space missions, C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 60 (9), 957–966 (2007).
    www.proceedings.bas.bg/
  • F. Spurný, O. Ploc, T. Dachev, On the neutron contribution to the exposure level onboard space vehicles, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 126 (1–4), 519–523 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncm104
  • J. W. Wilson, J. E. Nealy, T. P. dachev, B. T. Tomov, F. A. Cucinotta, F. F. Badavi, G. De Angelis, W. Atwell, N. Leutke, Time serial analysis of the induced LEO environment within the ISS 6A, Adv. Space Res. 40 (11), 1562–1570 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.12.030
  • T. P. Dachev, B. Tomov, Y. Matviichuk, P. Dimitrov, N. Bankov, Relativistic electrons observations on Foton M2/M3 satellites and on International Space Station, Proc. Fundam. Space Res., 21–28 Sep. 2008, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, pp. 155-158.
    ww.stil.bas.bg/FSR/
  • J. Semkova, R. Koleva, S. Maltchev, V. Benghin, V. Shurshakov, I. Chernykh, N. Bankov, Preliminary results of Liulin-5 experiment for investigation of the dynamics of radiation doses distribution in a human phantom aboard the International Space Station, C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 61 (6), 787–794 (2008).
    www.proceedings.bas.bg/
  • N. Bankov, T. Dachev, B. Tomov, P. Dimitrov, Y. Matviichuk, A simulation model of the radiation dose measured onboard of the ISS, Proc. Fundam. Space Res., 20 Sep.–20 Nov. 2009, pp. 144–146.
    www.stil.bas.bg/FSR2009/pap144.pdf
  • T. P. Dachev, Characterization of the near Erath radiation environment by Liulin type spectrometer, Adv. Space Res. 44 (12), 1441–1449 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.08.007
  • T. Dachev., J. Semkova, B. Tomov, P. Dimitrov, Y. Matviichuk, R. Koleva, S. Maltchev, G. Reitz, G. Horneck, G. De Angelis, D.-P. Häder, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, V. Benghin, I. Chernykh, S. Drobyshev, N. Bankov, Space Shuttle drops down the SAA doses on ISS, Proc. Fundam. Space Res., 20 Sep.–20 Nov. 2009, pp. 67–70.
    www.stil.bas.bg/FSR2009/pap67.pdf
  • T. Dachev, O. Ploc, B. Tomov, F. Spurny, Analysis of the GCR dose rate increase onboard spacecraft and aircraft in the declining phase of the 23rd solar cycle, Proc. Fundam. Space Res., 20 Sep.–20 Nov. 2009, pp. 139–143.
    www.stil.bas.bg/FSR2009/pap139.pdf
  • J. Semkova, R. Koleva, Overview on radiation quantities observed by Liulin-5 instrument in a human phantom on the International Space Station during the minimum oft he 23rd solar cycle, C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 63 (10), 1533–1542 (2010).
    www.proceedings.bas.bg/
  • T. P. Dachev, J. Semkova, B. Tomov, Y. Matviichuk, P. Dimitrov, R. Koleva, S. Malchev, G. Reitz, G. Horneck, G. De Angelis, D.-P. Häder, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, V. Benghin, I. Chernykh, S. Drobyshev, N. G. Bankov, Space Shuttle drops down the SAA doses on ISS, Adv. Space Res. in press (2011).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2011.01.034
DOSTEL
  • G. Reitz, R. Beaujean, E. Benton, S. Burmeister, T. Dachev, S. Deme, M. Luszik-Bhadra, P. Olko, Space radiation measurements on-board ISS—The DOSMAP experiment, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 116 (1–4), 374–379 (2005)
    dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci262
ALTEINO/ALTEA
  • M. Casolino, V. Bidoli, G. Furano, M. Minori, A. Morselli, L. Narici, P. Picozza, E. Reali, R. Sparvoli, C. Fuglesang, W. Sannita, P. Carlson, G. Castellini, M. Tesi, A. Galper, M. Korotkov, A. Popov, N. Vavilov, S. Avdeev, V. Benghin, V. P. Salnitskii, O. I. Shevchenko, V. P. Petrov, K. A. Trukhanov, M. Boezio, W. Bonvicini, A. Vacchi, G. Zampa, N. Zampa, G. Mazzenga, M. Ricci, P. Spillantini, The Sileye-3/ALTEINO experiment on board the International Space Station, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc.Suppl.) 113 (1–3), 71–78 (2002).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5632(02)01824-8
  • L. Narici, V. Bidoli, M. Casolino, M. P. De Pascale, G. Furano, A. Morselli, P. Picozza, E. Reali, R. Sparvoli, S. Licoccia, P. Romagnoli, E. Traversa, Q. G. Sannita, A. Loizzo, A. Galper, A. Khodarovich, M. G. Korotkov, A. Popov, N. Vavilov, S. Avdeev, V. P. Salnitskii, O. I. Shevchenko, V. P. Petrov, K. A. Trukhanov, M. Boezio, W. Bonvicini, A. Vacchi, N. Zampa, R. Battiston, G. Mazzenga, M. Ricci, P. Spillantini, G. Castellini, P. Carlson, C. Fuglesang, ALTEA: Anomalous long term effects in astronauts. A probe on the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity on the central nervous system during long flights, Adv. Space Res. 31 (1), 141–146 (2003).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00881-5
  • L. Narici, F. Belli, V. Bidoli, M. Casolino, M. P. De Pascale, L. Di Fino, G. Furano, I. Modena, A. Morselli, P. Picozza, E. Reali, A. Rinaldi, D. Ruggieri, R. Sparvoli, V. Zaconte, W. G. Sannita, S. Carozzo, S. Lioccia, P. Romagnoli, E. Traversa, V. Cotronei, M. Vazquez, J. Miller, V. P. Salnitskii, O. I. Shevchenko, V. P. Petrov, K. A. Trukhanov, A. Galper, A. Khodarovich, M. G. Korotkov, A. Popov, N. Vavilov, S. Avdeev, M. Boezio, W. Bonvicini, A. Vacchi, N. Zampa, G. Mazzenga, M. Ricci, P. Spillantini, G. Castellini, R. Vittori, P. Carlson, C. Fuglesang, D. Schardt, The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation, Adv. Space Res. 33 (8), 1352–1357 (2004).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2003.09.052
  • M. Casolino, V. Bidoli, M. Minori, L. Narici, M. P. De Pascale, P. Picozza, E. Reali, V. Zaconte, C. Fuglesang, R. Vittori, P. Carlson, A. Galper, M. Korotkov, A. Popov, N. Vavilov, S. Avdeev, V. Benghin, V. P. Petrov, V. P. Salnitskii, O. I. Shevchenko, K. A. Trukhanov, K. A. Shurshakov, M. Boezio, W. Bonvicini, A. Vacchi, G. Zampa, N. Zampa, G. Mazzenga, M. Ricci, P. Spillantini, Relative nuclear abundances inside ISS with Sileye-3/ALTEINO experiment, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1685–1690 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.02.050
  • M. Casolino, F. Altamura, M. Minori, P. Picozza, C. Fuglesang, C. Galper, A. Popov, V. Benghin, V. M. Petrov, A. Nagamatsu, T. Berger, G. Reitz, M. Durante, M. Pugliese, V. Roca, L. Sihver, F. Cucinotta, E. Semones, M. Shavers, V. Guarnieri, C. Lobascio, D. Castagnolo, R. Fortezza, The Altcriss project on board the International Space Station, Adv. Space Res. 40 (11), 1746–1753 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.037
  • R. Scrimaglio, G. Nurzia, E. Rantucci, E. Segreto, N. Finetti, A. Di Gaetano, A. Tassoni, P. Picozza, L. Narici, M. Casolino, L. Di Fino, A. Rinaldi, V. Zaconte, Simulation of the ALTEA experiment on the International Space Station with the Geant 3.21 program, Adv. Space Res. Volume 37 (9), 1770–1776 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2004.11.029
  • C. La Tessa, L. Di Fino, M. Larosa, L. Narici, P. Picozza, V. Zaconte, Estimate of the space station shielding thickness at a USLab site using ALTEA measurements and fragmentation cross sections, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267 (19), 3383–3387 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.06.107
  • V. Zaconte, M. Casolino, C. De Santis, L. Di Fino, C. La Tessa, M. Larosa, L. Narici, P. Picozza, The radiation environment in the ISS-USLab measured by ALTEA: Spectra and relative nuclear abundances in the polar, equatorial and SAA regions, Adv. Space Res. 46 (6), 797-799 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.032
  • V. Zaconte, M. Casolino, L. Di Fino, C. La Tessa, M. Larosa, L. Narici, P. Picozza, High energy radiation fluences in the ISS-USLab: Ion discrimination and particle abundances, Radiat. Meas. 45 (2), 168–172 (2010).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.01.020
CPDS/TEPC
  • G. D. Badhwar, Radiation measurements on the International Space Station, Phys. Medica 17 (Suppl. 1), 287–291 (2001).
    www.physicamedica.com/VOLXVII_S1/78-BADHWAR.pdf
  • K. Lee, J. Flanders, E. Semones, T. Shelfer, F. Riman, Simultaneous observation of the radiation environment inside and outside the ISS, Adv. Space Res. 40 (11), 1558–1561 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.02.083
  • A. S. Johnson, M. J. Golightly, T. Lin, E. J. Semones, T. Shelfer, M. D. Weyland, E. N. Zapp, A comparison of measurements and predictions for the April 15 and April 18, 2001 solar proton events, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1678–1684 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.04.083
  • D. Zhou, E. Semones, M. Weyland, S. Johnson, Radiation measured with TEPC and CR-39 PNTDs in low earth orbit, Adv. Space Res. 40 (11), 1571–1574 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.12.006
  • Zhou, E. Semones, R. Gaza, S. Johnson, N. Zapp, M. Weyland, Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 580 (3), 1283–1289 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2007.06.091
  • D. Zhou, D. O’Sullivan, E. Semones, N. Zapp, S. Johnson, M. Weyland, Radiation dosimetry for high LET particles in low Earth orbit, Acta Astronaut. 63 (7–10), 855–864 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.04.002
  • D. Zhou, E. Semones, R. Gaza, S. Johnson, N. Zapp, K. Lee, T. George, Radiation measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with different dosimeters, Adv. Space Res. 43 (8), 1212–1219 (2009).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.02.003
SCINT
  • K. Koga, T. Goka, H. Matsumoto, Y. Muraki, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Development of the fibre neutron monitor for the energy range 15–100 MeV on the International Space Station (ISS), Radiat. Meas. 33 (3), 287–291 (2001).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(00)00155-4
BSS
  • H. Koshiishi, H. Matsumoto, A. Chishiki, T. Goka, T. Omodaka, Evaluation of the neutron radiation environment inside the International Space Station based on the Bonner Ball Neutron Detector experiment, Radiat. Meas. 42 (9), 1510–1520 (2007).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.02.072
BTN
  • V.I. Tret’yakov, I.G. Mitrofanov, Yu.I. Bobronitskii, A.V. Vostrukhin, N.A. Gunko, A.S. Kozyrev, A.V. Krylov, M.L. Litvak, M. Lopez-Alegria, V.I. Lyagushin, A.A. Konovalov, M.P. Korotkov, P.V. Mazurov, M.I. Mokrousov, A.V. Malakhov, I.O. Nuzhdin, S.N. Ponomareva, M.A. Pronin, A.B. Sanin, G.N. Timoshenko, T.M. Tomilina, M.V. Tyurin, A.I. Tsygan, V.N. Shvetsov, The first stage of the “BTN-Neutron” space experiment onboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station Cosmic Research 48 (4) 285-299, (2010)
    dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0010952510040027

Supplementary Publications

REVIEW
PILLE
  • I. Apáthy, S. Deme, I. Fehér, Y. A. Akatov, G. Reitz, V. V. Arkhangelsky, Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system, Radiat. Meas. 35 (5), 381–391 (2002).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(02)00071-9
TRITEL
  • A. Hirn, T. Pázmándi, S. Deme, I. Apáthy, L. Bodnár, A. Csoke, TriTel-S: Development of a complex dosimetry instrument for a satellite in geostationary transfer orbit, Radiat. Meas. 43 (2–6), 427–431 (2008).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.12.043
TEPC
  • G. D. Badhwar, F. A. Cucinotta, L. A. Braby, A. Konradi, Measurements on the Shuttle of the LET spectra of galactic cosmic radiation and comparison with the radiation transport model, Radiat. Res. 139 (3), 344–351 (1994).
    www.jstor.org/pss/3578832
  • G. D. Badhwar, W. Atwell, E. V. Benton, A. L. Frank, R. P. Keegan, V. E. Dudkin, O. N. Karpov, Y. V. Potapov, A. B. Akopova, N. V. Magradze, L. V. Melkumyan, S. B. Rshtuni, A study of the radiation environment on board the Space Shuttle flight STS-57, Radiat. Meas. 24 (3), 283–289 (1995).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1350-4487(95)00007-2
  • G. D. Badhwar, A. Konradi, W. Atwell, M. J. Golightly, F. A. Cucinotta, J. W. Wilson, V. M. Petrov, I. V. Tchernykh, V. A. Shurshakov, A. P. Lobakov, Measurements of the linear energy transfer spectra on the Mir Orbital Station and comparison with radiation transport models, Radiat. Meas. 26 (2), 147–158 (1996).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1350-4487(95)00290-1
  • D. Zhou, E.Semones, R.Gaza, S.Johnson, N.Zapp, M.Weyland, R. Rutledge, T.Lin Radiation measured with different dosimeters during STS-121 space mission, Acta Astronautica 64 437–447 (2009)
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.10.001
DOSTEL
BSS
  • R. L. Bramblett, R. I. Ewing, T. W. Bonner, A new type of neutron spectrometer, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 9 (1), 1–12 (1960).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/0029-554X(60)90043-4
  • J. E. Keith, G. D. Badhwar, D. J. Lindstrom, Neutron spectrum and dose-equivalent in Shuttle flights during solar maximum, Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. D–Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. 20 (1), 41–47 (1992).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/1359-0189(92)90083-8
  • H. Matsumoto, T. Goka, K. Koga, S. Iwai, T. Uehara, O. Sato, S. Takagi, Realtime measurement of low-energy-range neutron spectra on board the Space Shuttle STS-89 (S/MM-8), Radiat. Meas. 33 (3), 321–333 (2001).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(00)00157-8
  • P. I. Shavrin, B.M. Kuzhevskij, S. N. Kuznetsov, O. Y. Nechaev, M. I. Panasyuk, S. P. Ryumin, B. Y. Yushkov, L. S. Bratolyubova-Tsulukidze, V. I. Lyagushin, Y. L. Germantsev, Measurements of neutron fluxes with energies from thermal to several MeV in near-Earth space: SINP results, Radiat. Meas. 35 (5), 531–538 (2002).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(02)00086-0
  • J. W. Wilson, F. A. Cucinotta, M. J. Golightly, J. E. Nealy, G. D. Qualls, F. F. Badavi, G. De Angelis, B. M. Anderson, M. S. Clowdsley, N. Luetke, N. Zapp, M. R. Shavers, E. Semones, A. Hunter, International Space Station: A testbed for experimental and computational dosimetry, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1656–1663 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.02.038
R-16
  • E. I. Yuryatin, V. I. Shumshurov, V. V. Fominyh, M. V. Teltsov, Studies of dosimetric characteristics of ionization chambers with electrostatic relays, Ismerit. Techn. 3, 48–53 (1979).
ALTEINO
  • M. Casolino, V. Bidoli, M. Minori, L. Narici, M. P. De Pascale, P. Picozza, E. Reali, V. Zaconte, C. Fuglesang, R. Vittori, W. G. Sannita, P. Carlson, A. Galper, M. Korotkov, A. Kolmykov, A. Popov, N. Vavilov, S. Avdeev, V. Benghin, V. P. Petrov, V. P. Salnitskii, O. I. Shevchenko, V. A. Shurshakov, K. A. Trukhanov, M. Boezio, V. Bonvicini, A. Vacchi, N. Zampa, G. Zampa, G. Mazzenga, M. Ricci, P. Spillantini, E. Rantucci, R. Scrimaglio, E. Segreto, Detector response and calibration of the cosmic-ray detector of the Sileye-3/ALTEINO experiment, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1691–1696 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.136
  • R. Scrimaglio, E. Rantucci, E. Segreto, G. Nurzia, N. Finetti, A. Di Gaetano, A. Tassoni, P. Picozza, L. Narici, M. Casolino, L. Di Fino, A. Rinaldi, V. Zaconte, Analysis of Sileye-3/ALTEINO data with a neural network technique: Particle discrimination and energy reconstruction, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1697–1703 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.12.004
ALTEA
  • V. Zaconte, F. Belli, V. Bidoli, M. Casolino, L. Di Fino, L. Narici, P. Picozza, A. Rinaldi, D. Ruggieri, S. Carozzo, W. G. Sannita, P. Spillantini, G. Nurzia, E. Rantucci, R. Scrimaglio, E. Segreto, V. Cotronei, E. Alippi, G. Gianelli, A. Galper, ALTEA: Flight model calibration at GSI, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1704–1709 (2006).
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.02.028
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The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EU’s
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) and coordinated by the
German Aerospace Center (DLR)

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